The Drive Unit is a mobile robot used by Amazon for automating its warehouses. It carries heavy shelves of inventory on its back, and it never gets tired, complains about the boss, or asks for a raise. Robots run this place. Photo: Amazon Robotics The lifting mechanism of Kiva's original robot.
Photo: Joshua Dalsimer This camera reads barcodes under the product racks. Video: Kiva Systems Ratings How do you like this robot? Rate this robot's appearance Creepy. Kiva built six prototype robots in They were used to demonstrate the concept of a robotic warehouse while the company worked on the first commercial version of the DUwhich was released in The next generation of the DU followed quickly in with major changes to the charging subsystem and lifting mechanism.
InKiva introduced the larger capacity DU bot, which can lift 1, kg 3, lb and was designed for transporting oversize items. Since that time the form factors of the robots have remained mostly the same while the firmware has continually evolved.
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A Kiva warehouse can "self-organize" as robots store popular products near the order fulfillment stations and place less popular items at the back of the warehouse.
Decentralized software architecture. Able to lift about kg, or 1, lb.Robot is an electromechanical device which is capable of reacting in some way to its environment, and take autonomous decisions or actions in order to achieve a specific task. Motors and actuators are the devices which make the robot movable. Motors and actuators convert electrical energy into physical motion.
The vast majority of actuators produce either rotational or linear motion. In this instructables I will explain more common types of motors and actuators, their basics and how to control them. Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. There are literally dozens of types of electric motors but I will discuss the most common types used in amateur robotics.
Motors are classified as:. AC alternating current motors are rarely used in mobile robots because most of the robots are powered with direct current DC coming from batteries. Also, since electronic components use DC, it is more convenient to have the same type of power supply for the actuators as well.
So, I will not explain about AC motors here.
Robotics/Types of Robots/Wheeled
A motor controller is an electronic device that helps microcontroller to control the motor. Motor controller acts as an intermediate device between a microcontroller, a power supply or batteries, and the motors.
The motor controller, on the other hand, can provide the current at the required voltage but cannot decide how the motor should run. Thus, the microcontroller and the motor controller have to work together in order to make the motors move appropriately. Usually, the microcontroller can instruct the motor controller on how to power the motors via a standard and simple communication method such as UART or PWM.
Also, some motor controllers can be manually controlled by an analogue voltage usually created with a potentiometer.
The physical size and weight of a motor controller can vary significantly, from a device smaller than the tip of your finger used to control a mini sumo robot to a large controller weighing several Kg. The size of a motor controller is usually related to the maximum current it can provide. Larger current means larger size. Since there are several types of motors, there are several types of motor controllers different type of motor requires different type of controller :.
A brushed DC motor is one which uses two brushes to conduct current from source to armature. Brushed DC motors are widely used in applications ranging from toys to push-button adjustable car seats. Brushed DC BDC motors are inexpensive, easy to drive, and are readily available in all sizes and shapes.In computer storagea tape librarysometimes called a tape silotape robot or tape jukeboxis a storage device that contains one or more tape drivesa number of slots to hold tape cartridgesa barcode reader to identify tape cartridges and an automated method for loading tapes a robot.
Additionally, the area where tapes that are NOT currently in a silo are stored is also called a tape library. Tape libraries can contain millions of tapes. These devices can store immense amounts of data, ranging from 20 terabytes  up to 2. Such capacity is multiple thousand times that of a typical hard drive and well in excess of what is capable with network attached storage. For large data-storage, they are a cost-effective solution, with cost per gigabyte as low as 2 cents USD.
Access to data in a library takes from several seconds to several minutes. Because of their slow sequential access and huge capacity, tape libraries are primarily used for backups and as the final stage of digital archiving. A typical application of the latter would be an organization's extensive transaction record for legal or auditing purposes.
Another example is hierarchical storage management HSMin which tape library is used to hold rarely used files from file systems. There are several large-scale library-management packages available commercially.
Tape libraries commonly have the capability of optically scanning barcode labels which are attached to each tape, allowing them to automatically maintain an inventory of which tapes are where within the library. Preprinted barcode labels are commercially available or custom labels may be generated using commercial or free software.
The barcode label is frequently part of the tape labelinformation recorded at the beginning of the medium to uniquely identify the tape. Smaller tape libraries with only one drive are known as autoloaders.
Other types of autoloaders may operate with optical discs such as compact discs or DVDs or floppy disks [ citation needed ]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Storage device containing a robot which automatically loads tapes into tape drives. Storage Network Industry Association. Retrieved Sun Microsystems, Inc. What is a stacker autoloader vs a jukebox? Categories : Tape-based computer storage Handling robots.
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Here are the 15 categories we used to classify robots. Aerospace: This is a broad category. It includes all sorts of flying robots—the SmartBird robotic seagull and the Raven surveillance drone, for example—but also robots that can operate in space, such as Mars rovers and NASA's Robonaut, the humanoid that flew to the International Space Station and is now back on Earth.
Consumer: Consumer robots are robots you can buy and use just for fun or to help you with tasks and chores.
Examples are the robot dog Aibo, the Roomba vacuum, AI-powered robot assistants, and a growing variety of robotic toys and kits. Disaster Response: These robots perform dangerous jobs like searching for survivors in the aftermath of an emergency. For example, after an earthquake and tsunami struck Japan inPackbots were used to inspect damage at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Drones: Also called unmanned aerial vehicles, drones come in different sizes and have different levels of autonomy.
Education: This broad category is aimed at the next generation of roboticists, for use at home or in classrooms. Entertainment: These robots are designed to evoke an emotional response and make us laugh or feel surprise or in awe. Exoskeletons: Robotic exoskeletons can be used for physical rehabilitation and for enabling a paralyzed patient walk again.
Some have industrial or military applications, by giving the wearer added mobility, endurance, or capacity to carry heavy loads. Humanoids: This is probably the type of robot that most people think of when they think of a robot.
Industrial: The traditional industrial robot consists of a manipulator arm designed to perform repetitive tasks. An example is the Unimate, the grandfather of all factory robots. This category includes also systems like Amazon's warehouse robots and collaborative factory robots that can operate alongside human workers. Medical: Medical and health-care robots include systems such as the da Vinci surgical robot and bionic prostheses, as well as robotic exoskeletons.
A system that may fit in this category but is not a robot is Watson, the IBM question-answering supercomputer, which has been used in healthcare applications. Security robots include autonomous mobile systems such as Cobalt. So although some robots may fit other categories described here, they can also be called research robots. Self-Driving Cars: Many robots can drive themselves around, and an increasing number of them can now drive you around.
Telepresence: Telepresence robots allow you to be present at a place without actually going there. You log on to a robot avatar via the internet and drive it around, seeing what it sees, and talking with people. Workers can use it to collaborate with colleagues at a distant office, and doctors can use it to check on patients.Robot Drive System.
The actions of the individual joints must be controlled in order for the manipulator to perform a desired motion. The joints are moved by actuators powered by a particular form of drive system.
Common drive systems used in robotics are electric drive, hydraulic drive, and pneumatic drive. Drive Systems The drive system determines the speed of the arm movement, the strength of the robot, dynamic performance, and, to some extent, the kinds of application. Stiffness vs. Compliance Stiffness is the resistance of a material against deformation. Hydraulic systems are very stiff and noncompliant. Pneumatic systems are compliant.
Use of Reduction Gears Gears used to increase the torque and reduce the speed. Hydraulic actuators can be directly attached to the links. This Simplifies the design, Reduces the weight, Reduces the cost, Reduces rotating inertia of joints, Reduces backslash, Reduces noise and Increases the reliability of the system.
Electric motors normally used in conjunction with reduction gears to increase their torques and to decrease their speed. This increases the cost, increases the number of parts, increases backslash, increases inertia of rotating body, increases the resolution of the system. Applications Electric motors are the most commonly used actuators. Hydraulic systems were very popular for large robots.Introduction Robot Drive Systems.
The actions of the individual joints must be controlled in order for the manipulator to perform a desired move its body, arm, motion and wrist. The is provided by the drive system used to power the robot.
The joints are moved by actuators powered by a particular form of drive system. Common drive systems used in robotics are electric drive, hydraulic drive, and pneumatic drive. Types of Actuators. The drive system determines the speed of the arm movement, the strength of the robot, dynamic performance, and, to some extent, the kinds of application. A robot will require a drive system for moving their arm, wrist, and body. A drive system is usually used to determine the capacity of a robot.Robotics: 3) Drive System, Joints, and D.O.F
For actuating the robot joints, there are three different types of drive systems available such as:. The most importantly used two types of drive systems are electric and hydraulic. The electric drive systems are capable of moving robots with high power or speed. The actuation of this type of robot can be done by either DC servo motors or DC stepping motors. It can be well —suited for rotational joints and as well as linear joints. The electric drive system will be perfect for small robots and precise applications.
Most importantly, it has got greater accuracy and repeatability. The one disadvantage of this system is that it is slightly costlier. An example for this type of drive system is Maker robot. The hydraulic drive systems are completely meant for the large —sized robots. It can deliver high power or speed than the electric drive systems. This drive system can be used for both linear and rotational joints. The rotary motions are provided by the rotary vane actuators, while the linear motions are produced by hydraulic pistons.
The leakage of hydraulic oils is considered as the major disadvantage of this drive. An example for the hydraulic drive system is Unimate series robot. Pneumatic Drive System:. It has the ability to offer fine accuracy and speed. This drive system can produce rotary movements by actuating the rotary actuators. The translational movements of sliding joints can also be provided by operating the piston. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. Toggle navigation BrainKart.
Related Topics Different types of robots. Joint Notation Scheme. Technical specification in Robotics. Types of joints used in robots. Four types of robot control. Magnetic Grippers. Mechanical Gripper.In the previous section you have seen the different types of wheels and their arrangements.
Once you have decided on how many and what type of wheels your robot will have, you need to put in a plan on how to control them. Below described are few control mechanisms to drive and steer your robot. The concept is simple; Velocity difference between two motors drive the robot in any required path and direction. Differential wheeled robot can have two independently driven wheels fixed on a common horizontal axis or three wheels where two independently driven wheels and a roller ball or a castor attached to maintain equilibrium.
There are three fundamental cases which can happen in a differential wheeled robot:. Design, mechanical construction and control algorithm can never get any simpler than this driving technique, and the concept can be incorporated in almost any kind of robots including legged robots. One of the major disadvantages of this control is that the robot does not drive as expected.
It neither drives along a straight line nor turn exactly at expected angles, especially when we use DC motors. This is due to difference in the number of rotations of each wheel in a given amount of time. To handle this problem, we need to add correction factor to the motor speed. For example if you intend to drive your robot in a linear path and feel that the robot is turning towards one side, then a correction factor can be added to reduce the speed of the other wheel.
The better option is to use dual-differential drive which can mechanically guarantee straight line motion. In this approach, each wheel has mechanical differentials and differentials combine the forces from shafts and drive the wheels. In other words, two wheels are connected to two motors where one motor controls the rotation of both wheels while the other controls the direction.
Few robot builders have implemented 3L differential drive; since is it not very popular, and the results are not in any way far better than dual differential drive, we can happily skip that for the moment. Skid steering is another driving mechanism implemented on vehicles with either tracks or wheels which uses differential drive concept.
Most common Skid steered vehicles are tracked tanks and bulldozers. This method engages one side of the tracks or wheels and turning is done by generating differential velocity at opposite side of a vehicle as the wheels or tracks in the vehicle are non-steerable. If you have understood differential drive concept, there Skid steering is no different. In differentially driven robot, there is a castor which balances the robot and in Skid Steer drive, the castor is replaced with two driving wheels.
Suppose you need your robot to turn left; then the right wheels or tracks are driven forward and the left wheels or tracks are driven backward until the robot turns right. Suppose if there are four wheels attached on each side, then the front and rear wheels rotate more and the center wheels almost skid to turn. Thus the name Skid steer. Tricycle Drive : For robots with three wheels a tricycle approach can be used. If you have seen a tricycle, then you already know how to design this.
Tricycle robot is designed with a front steering wheel controlled by a motor. The two rear wheels are attached to a common axle driven by a single motor with two degrees of freedom either forwards or reverse. Few robots have both steer and drive controlled by the front wheel and the rear wheels act as supporting wheels to maintain equilibrium.
Due to the design constraints and its drawbacks, this design is less appreciated by the robot building community. Ackermann Steering : One of the most common configurations found in cars is Ackerman steering which mechanically coordinates the angle of two front wheels which are fixed on a common axle used for steering and two rear wheels fixed on another axle for driving.
The advantage in this design is increased control, better stability and maneuverability on road, less slippage and less power consumption. This might resemble the tricycle approach where the front wheel is replaced with two wheels and an axle. But when two wheels are attached to a tricycle design axle-articulated drivethen turning causes the robot to skid.
Drives and Mechanisms Used in Robots
To overcome that drawback Ackerman steering is designed in such a way that when there is a turn, the inner tire turns with a greater angle than the outer tire and avoids tire slippage. This approach can be generally used for fast outdoor robots which require excellent ground clearance and traction.
Although there are disadvantages, the downside is additional parts required; no zero radii turn and increased complexity in design. Note: The angle mentioned in the image is just to make it easier to understand. If you decide to use this, make your own research and calculations. Synchronous Drive : For even surfaces, this design can be considered the best as the navigation is very precise.